[每周翻译]当你没有底牌的时候,如何进行谈判?

原文:How to negotiate when you have nothing to leverage

作者:Penelope Trunk

翻译:OneLeo

You probably know by now that while I go by the name Penelope today, it didn’t start out as my real name. It was a pen name. My editor at Time Warner gave it to me, and the first time I saw it was in a contract. It looked like a good place to start negotiating.

现在你大概明白了我为什么起Penelope这个名字了吧,其实它并不是根据我的真实名字而来的,它只是一个笔名而已。是我在时代华纳时的编辑给我的这个名字,而且我第一次知道这个名字,是因为我要签的这份合同上写的是这个名字。这看起来是需要一场谈判了。

But when asked about writing under a different name my editor said, “When you’re Dominick Dunne you can negotiate with Time Warner.”

但当在我询问是否可以签不同的名字时也就是签我的真实名字时,我的编辑说:“只有当你是Dominick Dunne的时候,你才有权利与时代华纳谈判。”

And herein lays the problem with most negotiations. You are in a great position if you have something to leverage, like, another person willing to give you the same type of deal. This is called your BATNA (best alternative to negotiated agreement). But in most cases, one party has an especially terrible BATNA. In the case of me and Time Warner, if I said no to them, they would have ten million people who would love to write a column for them. If they said no to me, I would not have a column.

那么这便是大多数谈判的问题所在了。当你处于一个很有力的位置时,你手中有王牌的时候,就比如,另外一个人愿意给你同样一种类型的交易。这被叫做达成谈判协议的最佳选择方案BATNA (best alternative to negotiated agreement).。但大多数时,总是由乙方处于谈判地位中的劣势。比如我和时代华纳之间,即使我拒绝了他们,他们还是有无数人愿意给他们写专栏。但是,如果他们对我说了不,那么我将一个专栏都没有了。

Yet most advice about negotiating assumes you have a good BATNA. In an interview I did with William Ury, the author of my favorite negotiation book, Getting to Yes, he said that negotiation is all about knowing your BATNA and knowing the other party’s BATNA and then helping both of you to get what you want.

大多数关于协商谈判的建议假定你都有一个达成谈判协议的最佳选择方案。在一次采访William Ury的过程中,他是我最喜欢的一本谈判书:Getting to Yes的作者,他说:谈判其实就是知道你自己的达成谈判协议的最佳选择方案,并且也能够知道对方的,那么尽量都达到你们想要的最佳方案。

If you think about negotiating from this vantage point, then you can understand why job hopping is okay in today’s market: the BATNA for young people is stronger than the BATNA for hiring managers. Hiring managers are scrambling to hire young people and the young people are quitting faster than human resources can replace them. Meanwhile, the alternatives for young people are increasing – they can live at their parents’ house, they can start their own company, and they can travel. All great alternatives to getting a job at a company.

如果你从这样一个较好的角度来思考谈判的话,你便可以理解为什么跳槽在当今的市场中是被认可的:那是因为年轻人在谈判中的最佳方案比招聘方的方案更强势。经理总是想雇佣年轻人,而年轻人跳槽的速度远远是人力资源无法弥补的。同时, 年轻人的有利条件又在不断增加:他们可以和父母住在一起,他们可以创业,他们还可以旅游。这些都是在企业上班的很好的备选方案。

That said, sooner or later each of us finds ourselves in a situation where we have a really lousy BATNA. I find myself in this position a lot, as a writer. For example, a very large syndicate asked me to write for them. It would have meant having my column run in 400 newspapers at a time when I had about ten newspapers. I sent the contract to my lawyer, thinking he’d just take a quick look and say yes. But he told me that there was a clause that made me essentially unable to write for anyone else. Ever. We tried negotiating and they wouldn’t budge. Of course they wouldn’t. Millions of people want to write a syndicated column. So I had to say no. It was a very hard decision. In hindsight I am thankful for that lawyer, but for years after that, every time I found myself struggling, I worried that I did the wrong thing with the syndicate.

如此说来,我们每一个人早晚都可以找到自己的位置一个达成谈判协议的最佳方案。 正如我发现自己作为作家这个职位一样。例如,一个很大的联合企业邀请我替他们写文章。那将意味着我可能会在400分报纸中拥有我的专栏而那个时候我只有10份报纸。于是,我把合同发给我的律师,本以为他会很快速的浏览一下并同意。但是没有想到,他告诉我合同中有一个条款对我有本质上的影响,那便是我不能再给别人写专栏。然而,我们也一直试图协商,但是终未有结果。当然是他们不愿意。成千上万的人想写这个企业联合专栏,而我也不得不拒绝了。当然,做这个决定是非常艰难的。以后见之明来说,我还是要感谢那个律师,但是几年过去了,每次当我觉得我走投无路时,我总是怀疑当时自己做了一个错误的决定。

When Yahoo offered me the chance to write for them, they gave me a difficult contract. I gave it to the lawyer and the lawyer was very frank: It’s not a great contract, but it’s a great opportunity, and you should take it. So we talked about some things I could try asking for that would not be that hard for Yahoo to give on, just to be nice. I gave Yahoo a short list, they picked a few things, and I signed.

当雅虎给我一个写专栏的机会时,他们也给了我一个很苛刻的合同。我把它给了律师,律师很坦率:这虽然不是一个很好的合同,但却是一个不错的机会,你可以试试看。因此我们就谈论了一些关于雅虎给我的合同条款,并且我给了雅虎一个清单,他们也同意了几条,于是我就签了合同。

So what have I learned from all this? If one person has a great BATNA and the other has a terrible one, it’s not really negotiations; it’s trying to get a little something extra. It’s asking for a favor. If you approach negotiations from this perspective then you are much more likely to get a little bit of what you want.

那么,我从这里学到了什么呢?如果一个人有着很好的达成协议谈判的最佳方案,而另一个人却没有,这就算不上谈判;那是一种乞求。如果你从这个角度来进行谈判的话,你还是有可能得到一点点你想要的。

Figure out where your counterpart might be willing to give a little. Even if your BATNA clearly stinks, most people you negotiate with will be willing to give a little just to create some good will for the working relationship you are establishing.

找到对方在何处可能会有一点点让步。即使你的方案明显很烂,大多数和你谈判的人还是会愿意稍微让步一点以便未来可以和你建立一个良好的合作关系。

So you can read all the negotiation advice in the world, but if you have a terrible BATNA, what you really need is advice about how to ask for a favor. And, ironically, the advice for asking for a favor is the same advice for negotiating: Know what is most important and least important to both parties.

因此你可以阅读世界上所有有关于谈判的建议,但是如果你有一个糟糕的方案,你最最需要的是对如何乞求的建议。其实,这个建议其实也是对于如何进行谈判的建议:要弄清楚对于谈判双方什么是最重要的而什么又是最不重要的。

谈判 译者的话:

其实,我们的生活中时时都需要谈判的,商场上与竞争对手的谈判,职场上与面试官的谈判,生活中与自己的谈判。而在这些谈判中,我们究竟是出于劣势还是优势地位?

出于优势地位固然很好,我们可以充分发挥有利资源,打一个大胜仗。可是,往往很多时候,我们总是处于劣势,比如找工作时的谈判,因为需要工作的人实在太多太多,所以,这么位置对我们来说看上去就比较有吸引力。而当我们处于极端劣势的时候如何进行谈判呢?原文作者以她亲身经历的一件事情,来向我们阐述:这个时候不要全然拒绝,而是认真考虑对方可能让步的条件,从这些条件入手得到你可以得到的一些权利和利益。而这些,利益对于对方来说并不止于构成威胁,可是,却也可以让我们的完全被动的地位,变得主动。

关于,谈判的技巧,我想我们是需要多多补充和学习。

下面是译者从网上搜索的一些关于提高谈判技巧的相关文章,书和链接,希望能够对大家有所帮助:

http://www.35wl.com/TanPan/jiqiao/ (商务文库-商务谈判-谈判技巧)

http://www.5ucom.com/Special/tp/ (无忧商务,谈判技巧相关电子书)

《商务谈判英语》

《商务谈判技巧》

[每周翻译]说好自己的故事,让别人记住你!

原文:Be memorable by telling good stories about yourself

作者:Penelope Trunk

翻译:OneLeo

When someone says, “So tell me about yourself,” a lot of people stumble. When you craft your answer, you have 10 million hours of information to choose from. Many people actually hate getting this question because it’s so hard to zero-in on an answer.

当有人问:“那么说说你自己吧,”很多人都会瞠目结舌。当你准备加工润色你的答案时,你会有数不清的信息供你选择。事实上,很多人确实很讨厌被问到这种问题,因为很难简化成一个答案。(也就是说,你很难把自己已经生活过的数千万个小时里发生的所有故事都回忆一遍,然后从中选择一个好的答案。)

This is an honest question. Someone wants to know about you. You should learn to choose the right things to say, so you can answer the question in a way that allows people to connect with you and remember you.

确实存在这种问题,因为他们想了解你。你应该学会选择恰当的事情来说,这样你可才可以用一种能让人们把你与你的故事联系起来并且记住你的方式来回答这种问题。

“The villain of getting ideas across is the curse of knowledge,”says Chip Heath, Stanford business school professor and co-author of the book Made to Stick: Why Some Ideas Survive and Others Die. When you know something really well, like every detail of your life, Heath says, it’s difficult to figure out how to tell someone who doesn’t know.

斯坦福商学院的教授,Made to Stick: Why Some Ideas Survive and Others Die (让创意更有黏性)的合著者Chip Heath说过:“The villain of getting ideas across is the curse of knowledge”当你非常清楚记得某些事情,如你生活中的每一个细节之处,Heath说,那将很难向不了解你的人描述清楚这些事情。

Everyone has a complicated background. You need to pull that background together in a way that creates a single, memorable picture of yourself that is relevant to the person you’re talking to. In high school Ryan Patriquin focused on fine arts, but in college realized he really enjoyed computer-generated art, like “Toy Story.”

每个人都有一个非常复杂的背景。你需要做的是以某种方式把所有的背景整合在一起形成一个关于你的简单、令人印象深刻而又与对方相关的图片。高中时Ryan Patriquin专注于美术,但是在大学他意识到他很喜欢计算机制作艺术,像玩具总动员。

He spent a couple of years as a graphic designer. Then, while working at a large company that was going through transition, he got an opportunity to fill in as a product manager.

他花了几年的时间从事图像设计。然后,在一家大公司工作的时候,成功完成了他的转型, 最后他成为了一名产品经理。

Now 28, Patriquin was recently interviewing at EBSCO Publishing, a provider of reference, subscription and other information services. In the interview, he said, “I’m a creative person who has product management experience.”

This is a way for him to convey to people that he has two skills without explaining every detail of his life.

现在28岁的Patriquin正在EBSCO Publishing参加面试,这个公司是一个参考,订阅和其他信息服务的提供商。在面试中他说:“我是一个富有创造性的人,同时我还有多年的产品经理的经验!”这个方法可以告诉别人他有着两种技能却无需把生活中的每个细节都讲出来。

When you hear a summary like this, and it sounds obvious, that’s because it is right. But most people cannot see their own history so clearly to convey a short, one-sentence summary of who they are. You have to find your one-sentence if you want people to remember it. Try it out whenever someone asks you, “What do you do?” or “Tell me about yourself.” The answer to this question is a work in progress, and you can judge how you’re doing by how engaged the person’s response to you is.

当你听到这样的一个总结,你会觉得它很显而易见,因为它是对的。但是大多数人并不能如此清楚地看到自己的过去,然后总结一个很短却很有意义的一句话的自我介绍。你必须要找到别人能够记住你的一句话。试试看,当任何一个人问你:“你是做什么的?”或者“告诉我一些关于你的事情吧”那么这个问题的答案,就可以是这种模式的,并且你能够从别人的反应中看到自己所做的事情如何?

As for Patriquin, Brenda Kelley, a recruiter at EBSCO Publishing, says “He packaged himself in a way that helped me know he was the right person for the position. And we ended up hiring him.” Patriquin is now a user interface designer for the company.

作为EBSCO Publishing的面试官Patriquin, Brenda Kelley,说:“他用打包的一种方式来告诉我他正是这份工作的最佳人选,并且最终我们聘用了他。”Patriquin 现在是一家公司用户界面的设计者。

Sometimes, you only have time for a one-sentence summary of your life – when you are introduced to someone in passing, for example. But sometimes, there is more time for an answer – in an interview, for example. When you have more time, tell a story.

有时候,你只有可以说一句话的时间来概括你自己并且将自己介绍给别人,但有时候,面试的时候可能有更多的时间给你,这个时候,你可以讲一个故事。

The best way to have people connect with what you say about yourself, and remember what you say, is to tell a story. Most people instinctively list details about their life, “I did this, then this, then this.” It’s not very interesting. Stories are more engaging, so get used to talking about yourself in stories instead of in lists.

让别人记住你最好的方法,是讲一个故事。大多数人本能地会列出关于自己生活的一个清单“我做个这个,然后是这个,然后又是这个……”这很无趣。但是讲故事却更有吸引力,因此尝试用故事来叙述你自己而不是用清单列出你自己。

Telling stories about yourself takes practice. A lot of it is trial and error. As you’re telling the story out loud, you’ll instinctively feel if it’s a flop or not. When you find a good story, hone it until you’re conveying what you want people to know, in a way they’ll enjoy hearing.

用讲故事的方式来讲述你自己这是需要练习的。这个过程是需要反复的。当你大声的讲故事,你可以本能的知道这个故事是否合适。当你发现了一个好故事,那么就要遣词造句仔细推敲直到你能够把自己想表达的内容准确地告诉别人,而且能够引人入胜。

A story I used to tell in interviews is how I made my career choice during an argument with my ex-boyfriend.

我在面试时讲的一个故事是关于我在做自己的职业生涯选择时是如何跟我的前任男友发生争执的。

Heath says there are three different kinds of plots we can create about ourselves.

Heath 说过有三种不同的套路使我们来创建一个关于自己的精彩的故事:

1. The challenge plot. You overcame an obstacle to get to where you are. Heath’s example is someone who says, “I’m really good at customer-focused service.” It’s not very persuasive if someone makes that declaration. But this challenge plot makes things more persuasive; “I learned customer service working at an ice cream stand. In the summer the line was twenty people deep and it was a challenge to keep the customers happy.” Now the listener has an image in their mind of you being good at customer service.

1. 挑战性的。你战胜了你前进过程中的巨大的障碍。Heath有个例子是这样的:某人说“我是一个很好的客户服务工作者”但这种说法没有说服力,而下面这个关于挑战性的套路却更有说服力“我在冰激凌店从事服务工作,夏天的时候,队伍要排到20几个人,所以要保持客户满意是一个很大的挑战。”这时,面试官就开始动用他们的想象力来想象你是如何一个如有挑战性的客户服务人员了。

2. The creativity plot. In this plot, the turning point in the story is a eureka moment – when an idea comes to you and changes everything. You could say, “My business is about selling textbooks.” Or you could say, “I had an idea to sell textbooks, but I couldn’t figure out how to market them as interesting to the consumer. Then it hit me that no one has a favorite text book, but everyone has a favorite professor. So I needed to use the professors to hook in the customers.”

2. 创造性的。 如果使用这个套路的话,故事的转折点就在于灵光一现——突然一个很好的主意,然后便改变了所有的一切。你可能说:“我的工作是销售教科书。”或者你可以说:“我想卖教科书,但是我无法让消费者对教科书感兴趣。我恍然大悟,就算没有被人喜欢的课本,但人人都有一个自己喜爱的教授。这样我可以通过教授来吸引我们的客户。”

3. The connection plot. This plot comes in when you are telling a story about bringing a team together. For example, “our toy company merged with another toy company and people were duplicating each others’ efforts to create a new doll line. I convinced the teams to combine designs and work together. We created a doll that dominated the collectible doll market that Christmas.”

3. 整合性的。 这个方法大多来源于你讲述一个关于团队活动的故事。例如:“我们的玩具公司被另一家玩具公司给兼并了,于是人们复制彼此的生产线。我整合了我们团队的设计部门和加工部门,因此我们的玩具娃娃在圣诞节的时候几乎是主导了整个玩具娃娃收藏市场。”

Once you’ve practiced a bit, you can relish the moment someone says, “So, what do you do?” If you understand how to talk about yourself, this is an opening to connect in a meaningful way and make a lasting impression.

只要你能够练习一点点,你便可以享受那个时刻——当某人问你:“那么,你是做什么?”如果你懂得了如何谈论自己,这将是一个非常宽泛很有意义的方式并且会给对方保留一个持久的印象。

面试 译者的话:

这又是一个很启迪的建议,大家不妨多多练习一下关于自己的一句话或者一个故事。

这句话,要精辟要富有代表性要一针见血的表述出你自己。而你的故事,除了要富有代表性之外还要足够的吸引人的精彩。想想在已经过去的那些生活,学习和工作的日子里,哪些事情是你最最引以自豪的事情,哪些事情是最足以证明你在某方面具有这个特性和特长的,大家可以练习一下,并于你身边的朋友相互模仿一下。相信这对于你的面试会有所帮助的。

在这里,我还要再引用以下余世维老师的讲座:有效沟通.在有效沟通里,余老师就问我们这样的问题:用一句话来概括自己的产品,用两句话来说,用5分钟的时间,用十五分钟的时间,甚至用半个小时的时间,我们都要有自己不同的答案。

好好准备吧,相信自己就会成功!

2008-3[每周翻译]小结

三月里Oneleo翻译了并向大家推荐了三篇关于职业生涯以及面试的文章,文章均来自于Penelope Trunk一个职业生涯规划师的Blog.

通过阅读和翻译并和大家分享,oneleo 从中学到了不少的知识.Penelope Trunk 的很多观点都很有针对性和创造性。但毕竟中西方的文化差异还是存在的,所以大家也可以有选择性的吸收和采纳。

 

[每周翻译] 找到你下一步职业发展方向的步骤

在翻译完这篇文章之后,很多朋友都跟我说,他还是相信做自己喜欢做的工作才是最好的。也有朋友,现在还在寻找着自己喜欢的工作。有的朋友说他因为喜欢销售,所以他现在所从事的工作就是他所喜欢的工作,所以他很开心。可是,对于一个已经明确知道自己所喜欢的事情的人来说,选择一个自己喜欢的工作是一个明智的选择。可是,若对于一直到现在都不知道自己到底喜欢做什么事情的人来说(比如说我),还在一味地寻找着自己喜欢做的事情未免有些过了,假如我还在以实践行动去寻找也还好,最怕的就是始终只是靠想象来断定自己是否喜欢一件事情,这就有些愚蠢了。只是想象,却没有实践行动。有了实践,哪怕是碰破了头,擦破了皮,那也是值得的。因为你证实了自己的很多想法。所以,原文作者也说了,找到你下一步职业发展方向,是一个动词,是一个动态的。

[每周翻译]如何回答最难的面试问题

这个问题很是经典,但是由于不同公司的不同面试官的不同风格和理念,有时候也要适当的采用。

[每周翻译]面试时如何问好问题?

这是一个很创造性地建议。在面试的一开始要问清自己不清楚地问题,然后有的放矢的回答面试官之后的问题,这是很关键的一步。

Oneleo 今后还会不断的翻译和向大家推荐一些好的文章,希望大家一起努力,做一个充实的自己。