[每周翻译]当你没有底牌的时候,如何进行谈判?

原文:How to negotiate when you have nothing to leverage

作者:Penelope Trunk

翻译:OneLeo

You probably know by now that while I go by the name Penelope today, it didn’t start out as my real name. It was a pen name. My editor at Time Warner gave it to me, and the first time I saw it was in a contract. It looked like a good place to start negotiating.

现在你大概明白了我为什么起Penelope这个名字了吧,其实它并不是根据我的真实名字而来的,它只是一个笔名而已。是我在时代华纳时的编辑给我的这个名字,而且我第一次知道这个名字,是因为我要签的这份合同上写的是这个名字。这看起来是需要一场谈判了。

But when asked about writing under a different name my editor said, “When you’re Dominick Dunne you can negotiate with Time Warner.”

但当在我询问是否可以签不同的名字时也就是签我的真实名字时,我的编辑说:“只有当你是Dominick Dunne的时候,你才有权利与时代华纳谈判。”

And herein lays the problem with most negotiations. You are in a great position if you have something to leverage, like, another person willing to give you the same type of deal. This is called your BATNA (best alternative to negotiated agreement). But in most cases, one party has an especially terrible BATNA. In the case of me and Time Warner, if I said no to them, they would have ten million people who would love to write a column for them. If they said no to me, I would not have a column.

那么这便是大多数谈判的问题所在了。当你处于一个很有力的位置时,你手中有王牌的时候,就比如,另外一个人愿意给你同样一种类型的交易。这被叫做达成谈判协议的最佳选择方案BATNA (best alternative to negotiated agreement).。但大多数时,总是由乙方处于谈判地位中的劣势。比如我和时代华纳之间,即使我拒绝了他们,他们还是有无数人愿意给他们写专栏。但是,如果他们对我说了不,那么我将一个专栏都没有了。

Yet most advice about negotiating assumes you have a good BATNA. In an interview I did with William Ury, the author of my favorite negotiation book, Getting to Yes, he said that negotiation is all about knowing your BATNA and knowing the other party’s BATNA and then helping both of you to get what you want.

大多数关于协商谈判的建议假定你都有一个达成谈判协议的最佳选择方案。在一次采访William Ury的过程中,他是我最喜欢的一本谈判书:Getting to Yes的作者,他说:谈判其实就是知道你自己的达成谈判协议的最佳选择方案,并且也能够知道对方的,那么尽量都达到你们想要的最佳方案。

If you think about negotiating from this vantage point, then you can understand why job hopping is okay in today’s market: the BATNA for young people is stronger than the BATNA for hiring managers. Hiring managers are scrambling to hire young people and the young people are quitting faster than human resources can replace them. Meanwhile, the alternatives for young people are increasing – they can live at their parents’ house, they can start their own company, and they can travel. All great alternatives to getting a job at a company.

如果你从这样一个较好的角度来思考谈判的话,你便可以理解为什么跳槽在当今的市场中是被认可的:那是因为年轻人在谈判中的最佳方案比招聘方的方案更强势。经理总是想雇佣年轻人,而年轻人跳槽的速度远远是人力资源无法弥补的。同时, 年轻人的有利条件又在不断增加:他们可以和父母住在一起,他们可以创业,他们还可以旅游。这些都是在企业上班的很好的备选方案。

That said, sooner or later each of us finds ourselves in a situation where we have a really lousy BATNA. I find myself in this position a lot, as a writer. For example, a very large syndicate asked me to write for them. It would have meant having my column run in 400 newspapers at a time when I had about ten newspapers. I sent the contract to my lawyer, thinking he’d just take a quick look and say yes. But he told me that there was a clause that made me essentially unable to write for anyone else. Ever. We tried negotiating and they wouldn’t budge. Of course they wouldn’t. Millions of people want to write a syndicated column. So I had to say no. It was a very hard decision. In hindsight I am thankful for that lawyer, but for years after that, every time I found myself struggling, I worried that I did the wrong thing with the syndicate.

如此说来,我们每一个人早晚都可以找到自己的位置一个达成谈判协议的最佳方案。 正如我发现自己作为作家这个职位一样。例如,一个很大的联合企业邀请我替他们写文章。那将意味着我可能会在400分报纸中拥有我的专栏而那个时候我只有10份报纸。于是,我把合同发给我的律师,本以为他会很快速的浏览一下并同意。但是没有想到,他告诉我合同中有一个条款对我有本质上的影响,那便是我不能再给别人写专栏。然而,我们也一直试图协商,但是终未有结果。当然是他们不愿意。成千上万的人想写这个企业联合专栏,而我也不得不拒绝了。当然,做这个决定是非常艰难的。以后见之明来说,我还是要感谢那个律师,但是几年过去了,每次当我觉得我走投无路时,我总是怀疑当时自己做了一个错误的决定。

When Yahoo offered me the chance to write for them, they gave me a difficult contract. I gave it to the lawyer and the lawyer was very frank: It’s not a great contract, but it’s a great opportunity, and you should take it. So we talked about some things I could try asking for that would not be that hard for Yahoo to give on, just to be nice. I gave Yahoo a short list, they picked a few things, and I signed.

当雅虎给我一个写专栏的机会时,他们也给了我一个很苛刻的合同。我把它给了律师,律师很坦率:这虽然不是一个很好的合同,但却是一个不错的机会,你可以试试看。因此我们就谈论了一些关于雅虎给我的合同条款,并且我给了雅虎一个清单,他们也同意了几条,于是我就签了合同。

So what have I learned from all this? If one person has a great BATNA and the other has a terrible one, it’s not really negotiations; it’s trying to get a little something extra. It’s asking for a favor. If you approach negotiations from this perspective then you are much more likely to get a little bit of what you want.

那么,我从这里学到了什么呢?如果一个人有着很好的达成协议谈判的最佳方案,而另一个人却没有,这就算不上谈判;那是一种乞求。如果你从这个角度来进行谈判的话,你还是有可能得到一点点你想要的。

Figure out where your counterpart might be willing to give a little. Even if your BATNA clearly stinks, most people you negotiate with will be willing to give a little just to create some good will for the working relationship you are establishing.

找到对方在何处可能会有一点点让步。即使你的方案明显很烂,大多数和你谈判的人还是会愿意稍微让步一点以便未来可以和你建立一个良好的合作关系。

So you can read all the negotiation advice in the world, but if you have a terrible BATNA, what you really need is advice about how to ask for a favor. And, ironically, the advice for asking for a favor is the same advice for negotiating: Know what is most important and least important to both parties.

因此你可以阅读世界上所有有关于谈判的建议,但是如果你有一个糟糕的方案,你最最需要的是对如何乞求的建议。其实,这个建议其实也是对于如何进行谈判的建议:要弄清楚对于谈判双方什么是最重要的而什么又是最不重要的。

谈判 译者的话:

其实,我们的生活中时时都需要谈判的,商场上与竞争对手的谈判,职场上与面试官的谈判,生活中与自己的谈判。而在这些谈判中,我们究竟是出于劣势还是优势地位?

出于优势地位固然很好,我们可以充分发挥有利资源,打一个大胜仗。可是,往往很多时候,我们总是处于劣势,比如找工作时的谈判,因为需要工作的人实在太多太多,所以,这么位置对我们来说看上去就比较有吸引力。而当我们处于极端劣势的时候如何进行谈判呢?原文作者以她亲身经历的一件事情,来向我们阐述:这个时候不要全然拒绝,而是认真考虑对方可能让步的条件,从这些条件入手得到你可以得到的一些权利和利益。而这些,利益对于对方来说并不止于构成威胁,可是,却也可以让我们的完全被动的地位,变得主动。

关于,谈判的技巧,我想我们是需要多多补充和学习。

下面是译者从网上搜索的一些关于提高谈判技巧的相关文章,书和链接,希望能够对大家有所帮助:

http://www.35wl.com/TanPan/jiqiao/ (商务文库-商务谈判-谈判技巧)

http://www.5ucom.com/Special/tp/ (无忧商务,谈判技巧相关电子书)

《商务谈判英语》

《商务谈判技巧》